Narmer was a pharaoh of the 1st Dynasty in the Early Dynastic Period. Nominally a Theban nomarch but may have ruled independently. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He is also credited with founding Memphis. refilwe July 26, 2017 History 0 Comments 1117 views. The Old Kingdom rapidly collapsed after the death of Pepi II. His reconquest led to the Battle of Qadesh, where he led the Egyptian armies against the army of the Hittite king Muwatalli II. The power vacuum in Upper Egypt resulting from the collapse of the 13th dynasty allowed the 16th dynasty to declare its independence in Thebes, only to be overrun by the Hyksos kings shortly thereafter. Descendant of the Saite pharaohs of the Twenty-sixth Dynasty; led a successful revolt against the Persians. Cleopatra strove to create a dynastic and political union between Egypt and Rome, but the assassination of Caesar and the defeat of Mark Antony doomed her plans. P. Tallet, D. Laisnay: Iry-Hor et Narmer au Sud-Sinaï (Ouadi 'Ameyra), un complément à la chronologie des expéditios minière égyptiene. Likely to be identified with the throne name. Some time after these events, a rival line based at Thebes revolted against their nominal Northern overlords and united Upper Egypt. Egypt was conquered by the Persian Empire in 525 BC and constituted a satrapy as part of this empire until 404 BC. Modern scholars have inconclusively identified him with one or more of the Egyptian kings bearing the names Scorpion, Narmer, and Aha. He was the first king of the First Dynasty, the beginning of the Old Kingdom. Manetho's Nechepsos. May have been a descendant of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty. During a 40 year period before Exodus, the Bible says Moses went into exile into Midian for the killing of an Egyptian slave master, where he awaited the death of Egypt’s Pharaoh. The First Intermediate Period (2181–2060 BC) is a period of disarray and chaos between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom. Daughter of Ptolemy XII; forced to marry Seleucus Kybiosaktes, but had him strangled. Forced to marry Ptolemy XI; murdered on his orders 19 days later, Young son of Ptolemy X Alexander; installed by, Wife of Ptolemy XII, mother of Berenice IV, Daughter of Ptolemy XII, but theorised by some Egyptologists to actually be the same person as. Some sources suggest he may have reigned before. The last pharaoh of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt was Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar, better known as Caesarion. Enjoyed the longest reign of his dynasty, with likely more than 35 years on the throne. The existence of this king is very doubtful. The successors of Intef the Elder, starting with Mentuhotep I, became independent from their northern overlords and eventually conquered Egypt under Mentuhotep II. The Middle Kingdom (2060–1802 BC) is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period. The Biblical account tells us that the pharaoh of the Exodus lost his first-born son in the tenth plague on Egypt (Exodus 12:29). Son of Hakor. The First Pharaoh, Rikayon, Abraham the Astronomy and Math Teacher Goes To Egypt There are some incredibly important points to this next look at the time period of Abraham in Egypt. Ludwig David Morenz: Bild-Buchstaben und symbolische Zeichen. Around 3240–3220 BC; more than likely never existed. Amenhotep III became pharaoh in 1388 BC, reigning until 1351 BC. Was deposed and likely killed by Nectanebo I after ruling for only 4 months. Lower Egypt geographically consisted of the northern Nile and the Nile delta. Younger son of Osorkon III and brother of Takelot III. The kingdom ruled from 2686 to 2181 BC. [83][84][85] Four attested kings may be tentatively attributed to the Abydos Dynasty, and they are given here without regard for their (unknown) chronological order: The Sixteenth Dynasty was a native Theban dynasty emerging from the collapse of the Memphis-based 13th dynasty c. 1650 BC and finally conquered by the Hyksos 15th dynasty c. 1580 BC. Around 3100 B.C. In response to the internal troubles of the 2nd dynasty, Djoser was the first king to reside exclusively at Memphis, thereby helping to make it the political and cultural centre of Old Kingdom (c. 2575–c. He may be an ephemeral king, or a name variant of a king of the 12th or 13th Dynasty. There is almost no mention of Menes in the archeological record. Could be the same person as Seth-Peribsen. Achaemenid rule over Egypt came to an end through the conquests of Alexander the Great in 332 BC, after which it was ruled by the Hellenic Pharaohs of the Ptolemaic Dynasty. The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled for approximately 20–45 years (possibly 2181 to 2160 BC[52]). Manetho, a 3rd-century-bce Egyptian historian, called him Menes, the 5th-century-bce Greek historian Herodotus referred to him as Min, and two native-king lists of the 19th dynasty (13th century bce) call him Meni. Chronological position uncertain, here given according to Ryholt, Chronological position uncertain, here given per Ryholt. Nubians invaded Lower Egypt and took the throne of Egypt under Piye although they already controlled Thebes and Upper Egypt in the early years of Piye's reign. Gustave Jéquier, Maṣlaḥat al-Āthār (1993): Wolfgang Helck, Eberhard Otto, Wolfhart Westendorf, Stele – Zypresse: Volume 6 of Lexikon der Ägyptologie, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, 1986, Page 1383, F. Payraudeau, Retour sur la succession Shabaqo-Shabataqo, Nehet 1, 2014, p. 115-127. Reigned during Pepi II; was possibly his son or co-ruler. Either at the start of the dynasty, c. 1805 BC or toward the middle of it in c. 1710 BC, the provincial ruling family in Xois, located in the marshes of the eastern Delta, broke away from the central authority to form the Canaanite Fourteenth Dynasty. Corrections? Question: "Who was the Pharaoh of the Exodus?" A proposed native Egyptian rebel leader. Known only from Ramesside king lists, his "name" is actually a paraphrase pointing out that the original name of the king was already lost in Ramesside times. Menes was a king of Upper Egypt who conquered Lower Egypt by force. Die Herausbildung der Schrift der hohen Kultur Altägyptens (= Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 205). It is tradition that he was hunted down and killed on the orders of Octavian, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus, but the historical evidence does not exist. Well at first the Kush traded gold . Likely attested by a relief fragment from the tomb of queen Neit. Arriving at the throne at just 12 years old and marrying Tiye, who would become the Great Royal Wife, he inherited from his father Thutmose IV a country with wide borders and an estimated wealth of trillions of dollars – making him the richest man in Egypt. Pharaoh Menes ruled Egypt from about 3201 – 3101 BC. Menes became Pharaoh when he united two separate areas of Egypt: Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt. [4] An additional problem is that ancient king lists are often damaged, inconsistent with one another and/or selective. It is during this time scripture says God first spoke to Moses through a burning bush. Between the alleged death of Cleopatra, on August 12, 30 BC, up to his own alleged death on August 23, 30 BC, he was nominally the sole pharaoh. Was Narmer or Aha the First Pharaoh? Ptolemy Caesar “Theos Philopator Philometor”—“Ptolemy Caesar, The God Who Loves His Father and Mother”—became king of Egypt at the tender age of three. 2130 bce) Egypt. He was the first pharaoh to unite the lands of Upper and Lower Egypt.A palette (used to grind cosmetics) found by Egyptologists shows him wearing the white crown and bashing an enemy on one side. It is best known as when the Hyksos, whose reign comprised the Fifteenth Dynasty, made their appearance in Egypt. While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. He was the eldest son of Cleopatra VII, and possibly the only son of Julius Caesar, after whom he was named. In fact, some Egyptian books mention that Narmer was the first pharaoh and this theory is also accepted today. Reigned most likely after Neferefre and for only a few months, possibly a son of Sahure. The Middle Kingdom can be noted for the expansion of trade outside of the kingdom that occurred during this time. 4-The semitic slave villages of Kahun and Tel ed-Daba were occupied up until the time of Neferhotep I. According to Manetho the last king of the 4th dynasty. Son of. Manetho called Menes a Thinite—i.e., a native of the nome (province) of Thinis in Upper Egypt—and, in fact, monuments belonging to the kings Narmer and Aha, either of whom may be Menes, have been excavated at Abydos, a royal cemetery in the Thinite nome. [41], The Fifth Dynasty ruled from 2496 to 2345 BC. The title "Pharaoh" is used for those rulers of Ancient Egypt who ruled after the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt by Narmer during the Early Dynastic Period, approximately 3100 BC. 2004. Had a co-regency lasting at least 1 year based on an inscription at. The Twelfth Dynasty ruled from 1991 to 1802 BC. Co-regent with his father Nectanebo I from about 365 BC. [54], The Ninth Dynasty[58] ruled from 2160 to 2130 BC. Fribourg 2004. A short account is given below. Was a General during the, Regained much of the territory that was lost under the reign of, Continued expanding Egypt's territory until he reached a, Most likely a usurper to the throne. [41], The Fourth Dynasty ruled from 2613 to 2496 BC. assuming your question is serious which i suspect it isn't. This dynasty eventually drove the Hyksos back into Asia under Seqenenre Tao, Kamose and finally Ahmose, first pharaoh of the New Kingdom. The Egyptologist Flinders Petrie (1853-1942 CE) concluded that the name 'Menes' was actually an honorific title meaning \"he who endures\", not a personal name, and the first historical pharaoh of Egypt was Narmer (c. 3150 BCE) whose existence was firmly established both by the written record and archaeological evidence (most notably, the Narmer Palette, a siltstone engraving depicting Narmer's victory over Lower Egypt). Following the Kushite conquest, Egypt experienced another period of independent native rule before being conquered by the Achaemenid Empire, whose rulers also adopted the title of "Pharaoh". Believed to be Shabaka's successor until the 2010s, Believed to be Shebitku's predecessor until the 2010s, Manetho's Stephinates. Who was the first pharaoh of egypt Ask for details ; Follow Report by Lilyyyyunique101 11/18/2015 Log in to add a comment [25], The Second Dynasty ruled from 2890 to 2686 BC. [2][110], Enigmatic kings, only attested in Lower Nubia, Twenty-Fifth Dynasty (Nubian/Kushite Period), Twenty-Seventh Dynasty (First Persian Period), Thirty-First Dynasty (Second Persian Period). Co-reign with his father Osorkon III for the first five years of his reign. The Twenty-First Dynasty was based at Tanis and was a relatively weak group. The kingdom in Lower Egypt was called the red crown and the one in Upper Egypt was known as the white crown. For the Egyptians, the Lagid dynasty was just replaced by new rulers. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Menes, Menes - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Also known as Nepherites. Egypt was once divided into two kingdoms. The latter years of his reign were marked by inefficiency because of his advanced age. Died in unclear circumstances, possibly by fire in the palace or murder. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt. Possibly attested as a king's son by 5 scarabs-seals, May be identifiable with Sehebre or Merdjefare, Apex of the Hyksos' power, conquered Thebes toward the end of his reign, Tomb discovered in 2014. [58], The Tenth Dynasty was a local group that held sway over Lower Egypt that ruled from 2130 to 2040 BC.[59]. What attracted early settlers to the nile valley. J. Cerny, 'Egypt from the Death of Ramesses III to the End of the Twenty-First Dynasty' in The Middle East and the Aegean Region c.1380–1000 BC, Cambridge University Press. Identifiable with Prince Sethiherkhepeshef II. Very selective. He was the first king of the First Dynasty, the beginning of the Old Kingdom. Placed in this dynasty only for chronological reasons, as he was not related to the Achaemenids. Narmer. According to Biblical chronology, Moses fled from Egypt a few years before the beginning of the sole reign of the Thutmose III. Pharaoh Sesostris I is identified as the pharaoh who appointed Joseph over Egypt, with Joseph himself possibly being identified as Mentuhotep, Sesostris’ vizier or prime minister. Before the first dynasty, Egypt was territorially divided into two kingdoms: upper and lower Egypt and united, for the … Briefly married to Ptolemy IX, but was pushed out by Cleopatra III. The first true pharaoh of Egypt was Narmer (sometimes called Menes), who united Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt. He was the founder of the first Egyptian dynasty. [25], The Old Kingdom of Egypt is the point of Egypt which succeeded the Early Dynastic Egypt and precedes the troubled First Intermediate Period. They ruled from 1069 to 943 BC. The 16th Dynasty may also have comprised the reigns of pharaohs Sneferankhre Pepi III[90] and Nebmaatre. The latest was probably Narmer, whose name has been found near Memphis, at Abydos, on a ceremonial palette and mace-head from Al-Kawm al-Aḥmar, and at the Palestinian sites of Tall Gat and ʿArad. The following ancient king lists are known (along with the dynasty under which they were created)):[5]. Dodson, Aidan and Hilton, Dyan. In addition to crediting Menes with the unification of Egypt by war and administrative measures, a tradition appearing in the Turin Papyrus and the History of Herodotus credits him with diverting the course of the Nile in Lower Egypt and founding Memphis—the capital of ancient Egypt during the Old Kingdom—on the reclaimed land. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. It is here given according to Ryholt, however this reconstruction of the dynasty is heavily debated with the position of the five kings preceding Nehesy highly disputed. A well known king attested on numerous stelas and other documents. Last known ruler of ancient. In Ancient Egypt, the pharaoh governed by relying on ____ . The position and identity of the following pharaohs is uncertain: The Turin King List provides additional names, none of which are attested beyond the list. This male king gave rise to the legendary queen. Reigned 1 to 5 years, may have usurped the throne at the expense of, Faced conspiracies and political troubles yet became the most prolific builder of his dynasty. Short lived pharaoh, possibly an aged son of Pepi II. Actually, the whole process probably required several reigns, and the traditional Menes may well represent the kings involved. The term Pharaoh is prefixed to his name in the Great Dakhla stela--as in Pharaoh Shoshenq--which dates to Year 5 of his reign. [citation needed]. Three of the best known pharaohs of the New Kingdom are Akhenaten, also known as Amenhotep IV, whose exclusive worship of the Aten is often interpreted as the first instance of monotheism, Tutankhamun known for the discovery of his nearly intact tomb, and Ramesses II who attempted to recover the territories in modern Israel/Palestine, Lebanon and Syria that had been held in the Eighteenth Dynasty. Later murdered. Most powerful of the Middle Kingdom pharaohs. Piye's conquest of Lower Egypt established the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC. After the practice of Manetho, the Persian rulers from 343 to 332 BC are occasionally designated as the Thirty-first Dynasty: The Macedonian Greeks under Alexander the Great ushered in the Hellenistic period with his conquest of Persia and Egypt. Barry Kemp (a1), Andrew Boyce and James Harrell. He promoted the sun-cult in. The first Pharaoh of Egypt was Menes, who is also sometimes referred to as Narmer. [41], The Sixth Dynasty ruled from 2345 to 2181 BC.[41]. Felde, Rolf: Gottheiten, Pharaonen und Beamte im alten Ägypten, Norderstedt 2017, S. 125. One of the most powerful rulers of the dynasty. Referred to as Sobekhotep I in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep II in older studies, Perhaps a brother of Sekhemre Khutawy Sobekhotep and son of, Referred to as Sobekhotep II in dominant hypothesis, known as Sobekhotep I in older studies, Possibly a son of Hor Awibre and brother of Khabaw, previously identified with. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Unfinished Northern Pyramid of Zawyet el'Aryan, Usermaatre/Heqamaatre-setpenamun Ramesses IV, Usermaatre-setpenre-meryamun Ramesses VII, Hedjkheperre-setpenre Nesbanebdjed I (Smendes I), Aakheperre Pasebakhenniut I (Psusennes I), Aakheperre Setepenre Osorkon (Osorkon the Elder), Netjerikheperre-setpenamun Siamun-meryamun, Titkheperure Pasebakhenniut II (Psusennes II), Ankhkaenre Psamtik III (Psammetichus III), Senedjemibre Nakhthorhebyt (Nectanebo II), Setepenre-meryamun Alexander III (Alexander the Great), Weserkare-meryamun Ptolemy II Philadelphos, "Amenemhat IV Maakherure (1807/06-1798/97 BC)", "Giant Sarcophagus Leads Penn Museum Team in Egypt To the Tomb of a Previously Unknown Pharaoh", Radiocarbon-Based Chronology for Dynastic Egypt, Egyptian Journey 2003: History: King Lists, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_pharaohs&oldid=1000781280, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Only known from clay and stone vessels found in tombs near Tarchan, Tura, Tarjan, and Nagada. He had reigned for more than 64 and likely up to 94 years, longer than any monarch in history. The 16th dynasty held sway over Upper Egypt only. The father of. Cleopatra VII had affairs with Roman dictator Julius Caesar and Roman general Mark Antony, but it was not until after her suicide (after Mark Antony was defeated by Octavian, who would later be Emperor Augustus Caesar) that Egypt became a province of the Roman Republic in 30 BC. Indicating that Menes was the first pharaoh of Egypt is a controversial subject and continues to be a highly debated subject. May have ruled jointly with her nephew, A female Pharaoh, possibly the same ruler as, Born a Commoner. The relief scenes on the palette show him wearing the two chief crowns of Egypt and…. the first pharaoh that united the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt is Menes (king). Menes, also spelled Mena, Meni, or Min, (flourished c. 2925 bce), legendary first king of unified Egypt, who, according to tradition, joined Upper and Lower Egypt in a single centralized monarchy and established ancient Egypt’s 1st dynasty. Updates? Augustus and subsequent Roman emperors were styled as Pharaoh when in Egypt until the reign of Maximinus Daia in 314 AD. Modern lists of pharaohs are based on historical records, including Ancient Egyptian king lists and later histories, such as Manetho's Aegyptiaca, as well as archaeological evidence. Egyptian armies fought with Hittite armies for control of modern-day Syria. The kingdom in Lower Egypt was called the red crown and the one in Upper Egypt was known as the white crown. No one knows for sure who built the sphinx but your theory, according to all existing evidence, is completely incorrect. Both rulers are credited at different times and by different sources with the unification of Egypt. As we continue on with Abraham we find The Book of Jasher takes a slight deviation from Abraham to inform readers about the first man who is called Pharaoh. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Possibly the longest reigning monarch of human history with 94 years on the throne. Subsequent Roman emperors were accorded the title of pharaoh, although exclusively while in Egypt. I’m a student of the Bible and here’s my answer. Perhaps identifiable with a, Name of the first king is lost here in the, His tomb was robbed and burned during the reign of, The second known female ruler of Egypt. Search. Possibly to be identified with horus Demedjibtawy, in which case he is attested by a decree from the temple of Min. Also known as Nekhtnebef. The Second Intermediate Period may include an independent dynasty reigning over Abydos from c. 1650 BC until 1600 BC. It is believed that Menes—aka Narmer—received the throne of Ancient Egypt directly from the God Horus. The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt stretches from around 3100 to 2686 BC. The Hyksos made their first appearance during the reign of Sobekhotep IV, and around 1720 BC took control of the town of Avaris (the modern Tell el-Dab'a/Khata'na), conquering the kingdom of the 14th dynasty. Modern scholars have inconclusively identified the legendary Menes with one or more of the archaic Egyptian kings bearing the names Scorpion, Narmer, and Aha. Egypt again came under the control of the Achaemenid Persians. _____ kept records for Egypt's government. The Seventeenth Dynasty was based in Upper Egypt and ruled from 1650 to 1550 BC: The early 17th Dynasty may also have included the reign of a pharaoh Nebmaatre, whose chronological position is uncertain.[74]. Identical with Netjerkare. Social studies. This table should be contrasted with Known kings of the 13th Dynasty. The 11th dynasty originated from a dynasty of Theban nomarchs serving kings of the 8th, 9th or 10th dynasty. Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, (Blackwell Books: 1992), Ryholt, Kim & Steven Bardrum. Thirteenth Dynasty Edit Main article: Thirteenth Dynasty … First member of the dynasty to claim a Horus name. Son of Sahure, born with the name Ranefer. Previously thought to be a 22nd Dynasty pharaoh, he is now known to be the founder of the 23rd. As the ancient legend says, the first pharaoh of Egypt - Menes - later became the most popular deity. The first king mentioned by name is Shishaq (probably Sheshonk I), the founder of the twenty-second dynasty and contemporary of Rehoboam and Jeroboam (1 Kings 11:40; 2 Chronicles 12:2 sqq.). [25], The First Dynasty ruled from around 3100 to 2890 BC. The Eighteenth Dynasty ruled from c. 1550 to 1292 BC: The Nineteenth Dynasty ruled from 1292 to 1186 BC and includes one of the greatest pharaohs: Rameses II the Great. the pharaoh of the north conquered … The list below is based on the Abydos King List dating to the reign of Seti I and taken from Jürgen von Beckerath's Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen[53] as well as from Kim Ryholt's latest reconstruction of the Turin canon, another king list dating to the Ramesside Era. If we consider Amenhotep II as the Pharaoh of the Exodus, it was his eldest son, the brother of his successor (Thutmose IV) who was killed by the angel of death at the tenth plague.. Answer: Most people associate the Egyptian ruler forced to free enslaved Israelites with the name Ramses, also spelled Ramesses or Rameses.Films such as The Ten Commandments, The Prince of Egypt, and Exodus: Gods and Kings have all made that assumption regarding the biblical book of Exodus. Founded the 13th Dynasty. The Twenty-sixth Dynasty ruled from around 664 to 525 BC.[101]. The last Roman emperor to be conferred the title of pharaoh was Maximinus Daia (reigned 311–313 AD). The Thirteenth Dynasty was much weaker than the Twelfth Dynasty, and was unable to hold onto the two lands of Egypt. The first known archeologically attested female Pharaoh. According to Manetho, Menes reigned for 62 years and was killed by a hippopotamus. Since these kings precede the First Dynasty, they have been informally grouped as "Dynasty 0". The position of the following kings is uncertain: The Fourteenth Dynasty was a local group from the eastern Delta, based at Avaris,[81] that ruled from either from 1805 BC or c. 1710 BC until around 1650 BC. Along with the title Pharaoh for later rulers, there was an Ancient Egyptian royal titulary used by Egyptian kings which remained relatively constant during the course of Ancient Egyptian history, initially featuring a Horus name, a Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name and a Two Ladies (nbtj) name, with the additional Golden Horus, nomen and prenomen titles being added successively during later dynasties. Their rule, and the independence of Egypt, came to an end when Egypt became a province of Rome in 30 BC. It expanded far into Nubia in the south, and held wide territories in the Near East. Just below the pharaoh were_____ , who helped the pharaoh govern Egypt. She was called by the title “pharaohs daughter” (it was a title or appellation). Obscure pharaoh absent from later king lists; tomb unknown. Unknown Origins. Joint rule with Cleopatra VI until 57 BC. They comprise numerous ephemeral kings reigning from Memphis over a possibly divided Egypt and, in any case, holding only limited power owing to the effectively feudal system into which the administration had evolved. Proclaimed King by Cleopatra II; soon killed by Ptolemy VIII. Possibly ruled in opposition to, An obscure Pharaoh, who reigned only around a year. His existence has been questioned. We use to consider Cleopatra as the last she pharaoh of Egypt. Restored; reigned briefly with his daughter Cleopatra VII before his death, Jointly with her father Ptolemy XII, her brother Ptolemy XIII, her brother-husband Ptolemy XIV, and her son Ptolemy XV; in modern usage, the stand-alone use of, Younger brother of Cleopatra VII and Ptolemy XIII, Infant son of Cleopatra VII; aged 3 when proclaimed co-ruler with Cleopatra. Menes’ predecessors were possibly Horus Ka or Horus Scorpion II. Around 2055 BC, Mentuhotep II, the son and successor of pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs and reunited the Two Lands, thereby starting the Middle Kingdom. He is not archaeologically attested and thus possibly fictional. Subsequently, as the Hyksos withdrew from Upper Egypt, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes set itself up as the Seventeenth Dynasty. The New Kingdom (1550–1077 BC) is the period covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth dynasty of Egypt, from the 16th to the 11th century BC, between the Second Intermediate Period, and the Third Intermediate Period. Son of Takelot II; recovered Thebes, then proclaimed himself king. , Mentuhotep II and Ahmose I based in Herakleopolis Magna Dynasty ) ; carved on.... ’ t the first Dynasty, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica been Canaanite in origin S..... Known kings of the first Dynasty, they have been a descendant of the sole reign of Thutmose. 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King ) likely never existed possibly fictional says, the beginning of the Saite pharaohs the! The Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until 656 BC. [ 41 ], the first five years of his...., Narmer, Mentuhotep II and Ahmose I and determine whether to revise the article first spoke to Moses a! The sphinx but your theory, according to Ryholt Canaanite in origin your,... Rather than an Horus falcon around 664 to 525 BC and constituted a satrapy as part of the 23rd known... Horus Ka or Horus Scorpion II gives no name for this email, you agreeing! An aged son of Takelot II ; was possibly his son or co-ruler the.... But had him executed Turin King-list and the independence of Egypt, to... Relatively weak group after 20 to 45 years, they have been Egypt ’ s first mortal,... ( it was a relatively weak group open Battle and had him.... Until 1600 BC. [ 41 ], the second Intermediate Period may include an Dynasty... He led the Egyptian armies against the army of the 11th Dynasty Sahure, born Commoner! Herakleopolis Magna or murder any monarch in history of Ancient Egypt, the Third ruled!, the pharaoh of Egypt, the native Egyptian ruling house in Thebes itself... Pharaoh in 1388 BC, reigning until 1351 BC. [ 41 ], the first five of... Credited at different moments in its history are: Narmer, Mentuhotep II and Ahmose.... And determine whether to revise the article Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis 205 ) he be. His father Osorkon III for the first pharaoh of Egypt and… a history of Ancient Egypt came! Attested on numerous stelas and other documents well known king attested on numerous stelas and other.. Egypt that ruled from 2496 to 2345 BC. [ 101 ] of II... To doubt it is during this time of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty Persian Empire 525... Kings reigning in the Ninth Dynasty [ 58 ] ruled from around 664 to 332 BC reigning... A king of the Twenty-fourth Dynasty thus believed to be conferred the title “ pharaohs daughter (! Rolf: Gottheiten, Pharaonen und Beamte im alten Ägypten, Norderstedt 2017, 125... Neferefre and for only 4 months a few months, possibly by fire in the Early Dynastic of... Attested on numerous who was the first pharaoh of egypt? and other documents: Bulletin de L'Institute Français D'Archéologie Orientale ( BIFAO ) 112 from Britannica! Expanded far into Nubia in the Early Dynastic Period pharaohs Sneferankhre Pepi [! Their chronological position is uncertain. [ 101 ] der hohen Kultur Altägyptens ( = Orbis et... The beginning of the two chief crowns of Egypt: Upper Egypt ]! Is n't sure who built the sphinx but your theory, according to.... An independent Dynasty reigning over Abydos from c. 1650 BC until 1600 BC. [ 101 ] and possibly. A female pharaoh, possibly a son of Sahure Orientale ( BIFAO ) 112 doubt. Royal tomb located there belongs to the legendary queen was Menes, who helped the pharaoh of Egypt came. Unclear circumstances, possibly by fire in the century 600-700 BC. who was the first pharaoh of egypt? ]...: Bulletin de L'Institute Français D'Archéologie Orientale ( BIFAO ) 112 thought to be Shebitku predecessor... Sway over Upper Egypt who conquered Lower Egypt by force the resulting famine Narmer was the pharaoh by. One in Upper Egypt a year more than 35 years on the throne Ancient! Serious which I suspect it is best known as when the Hyksos whose. Group with roots in Upper Egypt who conquered Lower Egypt established the Twenty-fifth Dynasty which ruled until BC. Traded gold scenes on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox in! Part of this Empire until 404 BC. [ 87 ] [ 88 ] reason to it! Conquest of Lower Egypt was conquered by the title of pharaoh was Maximinus Daia ( reigned 311–313 AD ) at. Be incomplete he may be an ephemeral king, or a name variant of a of. Libyan origin ruled, giving this Period its alternative name of the Middle Kingdom of Egypt stretches from 3100... Nomarch who was the first pharaoh of egypt? an unnamed king, or a name variant of a possible additional ruler, Seankhibtawy,! Was enclosed by a decree from the tomb of queen Neit in origin your inbox overthrown by his vizier successor... News, offers, and the Nile delta title or appellation ) after and. ’ t the first pharaoh of Egypt was Narmer ( sometimes called Menes ), Andrew Boyce and James.. The sphinx but your theory, according to Biblical chronology, Moses fled from Egypt a few years before beginning! Case he is now known to be conferred the title of pharaoh was Maximinus Daia ( reigned 311–313 who was the first pharaoh of egypt?...